In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it narrowly passed Jefferson County with 51.85 percent voting for the measure.

However, Republicans have made gains in recent years; they hold five of seven seats on the county council. Jefferson County is divided among three congressional districts.

Prior to the 2012 election all of it was included in Missouri's 3rd Congressional District, but now about half of it is in the 3rd District, while the northeastern portion is in the 2nd Congressional District and the southern portion is in the 8th Congressional District.

According to a 2012 census study by the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Jefferson County led the Saint Louis metropolitan area in the number of adults who smoke, roughly 30% of all adult residents of Jefferson County smoked or used tobacco in some form, compared to the 19% national average and the 24% Missouri state average.

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In the end, Obama received 49.32 percent of the vote to Clinton’s 47.90% — a 1.42% difference.

Both candidates split Missouri’s 72 delegates, as the Democratic Party utilizes proportional representation.In 2006, Missourians voted on a proposition (Proposition B) to increase the minimum wage in the state to .50 an hour—it passed Jefferson County with 79.90 percent of the vote. Senator John Edwards (D-North Carolina) still received 2.74% of the vote in Jefferson County.The proposition strongly passed every single county in Missouri with 78.99 percent voting in favor as the minimum wage was increased to .50 an hour in the state. Senator John Mc Cain (R-Arizona) won Jefferson County with 33.54% of the vote. Representative Ron Paul (R-Texas) finished a distant fourth place with 3.94% of the vote in Jefferson County. Senator Hillary Clinton (D-New York) won Jefferson County over Senator Barack Obama (D-Illinois) with 61.32% of the vote, while Obama received 35.02% of the vote. Jefferson County gave Clinton one of her strongest showings in a predominantly suburban county in the entire country.A predominantly suburban county, Jefferson County is fairly independent-leaning at the federal level but does have a tendency to tilt Democratic.Presidential elections in Jefferson County are almost always extremely close; George W. The reported ethnic and racial make up of the population was 95.4% non-Hispanic white, 0.8% African-American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% reporting some other race, 1.3% reporting two or more races and 1.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race.).