Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. For example, if the questioned document’s date precedes the manufacturing date for the ink used to sign the document, it is established that the document could not have been signed on the date it bears. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file (document). – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the use of various inks on the document(s) fits a pattern that is either consistent with the dates appearing on the document(s) or indicates preparation "at one time" (during a short period of time). Paper folds – It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.

Offset marks – When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing (and printing) may be transferred from one to another.

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The answer to that question may determine whether the document has been altered (by adding certain information).

It should be noted that sequence of execution may be determined even when lines of the text and signature (handwritten notation) do not intersect. * At present, the ink aging methods that analyze ink dye components are considered unreliable by the overwhelming majority of ink dating specialists and forensic document examiners.

Nevertheless, this methodology is a pilot experience that requires further in-depth research when it comes to evaluating the limits of the applicability of the various inks and makes of ballpoint pens, thus reducing its potential limitations. Historical research using forensic fingerprinting techniques on the wax seals of thousands of medieval documents will reveal new insights into 12th to 14th century British society, help determine how ...

As Luis Bartolomé pointed out, "what is interesting about this method is that it can more accurately determine the age of the stroke produced by the ballpoint pen.

So the team used the same procedure as that used to analyse the samples produced for the research. This technique managed to spot the age of the ink on documents written up to five years previously and with an approximation margin of about 20%.

In other words, when applying this analysis procedure, the team can indicate whether the document was written 1,500 days previously (just over four years) with a margin of 300 days either way.

When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed.

More accurate, less invasive After observing this natural evolution and once the base guideline had been established, the next challenge to be overcome was to check the viability of the method using spontaneously written documents whose exact age was known, such as diaries, laboratory logs and judicial evidence from judicial processes that had been closed.

A new method that determines the age of a document in a less invasive way than other techniques and is also able to date documents up to five years old.

In fact, the dating of documents is a key area in the field of forensic science.

For example, a forensic document examiner can determine whether the stray toner particles (they are present on any laser-printed and photocopied documents but invisible to the naked eye) are below or above ballpoint pen ink writing (see Aginsky, V.