The tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory.

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An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag.

The RFID tag receives the message and then responds with its identification and other information.

RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC). For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets enables positive identification of animals.

Since RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, and possessions, or implanted in animals and people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised serious privacy concerns.

Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple; "blank" tags may be written with an electronic product code by the user.

RFID tags contain at least three parts: an integrated circuit that stores and processes information and that modulates and demodulates radio-frequency (RF) signals; a means of collecting DC power from the incident reader signal; and an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal.

In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a listening device for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the added audio information.

Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency.

ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data, source and read method authenticity.

This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

That makes a difference in interference and in exposure to radiation.