Marshall; bankruptcy judges are not constitutionally vested with jurisdiction to decide state common law claims against an entity that is not otherwise part of the bankruptcy proceedings; Northern Pipeline; Norberg.Ickes; the border search doctrine is not subject to a First Amendment exception; the government's interest in preventing the entry of unwanted persons and effects is at its zenith at the international border Employee handbooks; employee manual; human resources; anti-fraternization policy; workplace romance; non-fraternization policy; anti-fraternization policies; employee rights; dating a coworker; coworker relationships; employment lawyer.An employer may order a plant closing or mass layoff before the conclusion of the statutory sixty-day notice period if the closing or mass layoff is caused by business circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable.

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A penalty will implicate the double jeopardy clause only if there was a legislative intent that the penalty be criminal in nature and if the statutory scheme is so punitive as to make the remedy criminal.

A judge may not increase a sentence beyond the maximum allowed for an offense based on facts not proven at trial or admitted as a part of the guilty plea.

AFSCME Employees Pension Plan; bylaws may be unilaterally adopted by shareholders only when they appropriately relate to corporate processes rather than substantive decisions and do not otherwise violate the law.

capital offense; death penalty; death sentence; voir dire.

If have probable cause to believe automobile contains articles that they may be entitled to seize, may search the vehicle pursuant to lawful arrest, without warrant, or impound vehicle into police custody to search at later time.

Voluntary consent of any joint occupant of a residence to search the premises jointly occupied is valid against the co-occupant, permitting evidence discovered in the search to be used against the latter at a criminal trial.Millard Refrigerated Services, Inc.; limitation of liability in a warehouse receipt will limit liability, unless the damage was from the the warehouse's conversion of the goods to its own use.Chase Bank, USA; Unauthorized use of a credit card is use of the card by someone without actual, implied, or apparent authority to make charges, and from which the cardholder receives no benefit.A secured party may not recover a deficiency judgment if sale of the collateral was commercially unreasonable, but the debtor may recover damages for the creditor's failure to comply with legal requirements for a sale.In re Toshiba America HD DVD Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation; express warranty is not created by mere puffery; a statement about future performance may create express warranty if it is an affirmation or representation.Shell Oil Co.; claim for bad faith price setting; a price in an open price contract is set in good faith if it is commercially reasonable and nondiscriminatory; disparate pricing between jobbers and dealers is not evidence of discrimination Central Washington Refrigeration, Inc.